By Geoffrey Wawro
The Austro-Hungarian military that marched east and south to confront the Russians and Serbs within the starting campaigns of worldwide conflict I had an excellent prior yet a pitiful current. conversing a mystifying array of languages and lugging superseded guns, the Austrian troops have been hopelessly unprepared for the industrialized struggle that may almost immediately devour Europe.
As prizewinning historian Geoffrey Wawro explains in A Mad Catastrophe, the doomed Austrian conscripts have been an unlucky microcosm of the Austro-Hungarian Empire itself—both both ripe for destruction. After the assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914, Germany goaded the Empire right into a conflict with Russia and Serbia. With the Germans massing their forces within the west to have interaction the French and the British, everything—the process the conflict and the destiny of empires and alliances from Constantinople to London—hinged at the Habsburgs’ skill to weigh down Serbia and retain the Russians at bay. even though, Austria-Hungary have been rotting from inside of for years, hollowed out via repression, cynicism, and corruption on the optimum degrees. Commanded through a death emperor, Franz Joseph I, and a querulous superstar common, Conrad von Hötzendorf, the Austro-Hungarians controlled to bungle every thing: their ultimatum to the Serbs, their declarations of struggle, their mobilization, and the pivotal battles in Galicia and Serbia. via the tip of 1914, the Habsburg military lay in ruins and the result of the battle appeared all yet made up our minds.
Drawing on deep archival study, Wawro charts the decline of the Empire ahead of the conflict and reconstructs the nice battles within the east and the Balkans in exciting and tragic element. A Mad Catastrophe is a riveting account of a missed face of global conflict I, revealing how a once-mighty empire collapsed within the trenches of Serbia and the japanese entrance, altering the process ecu heritage.
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Extra info for A Mad Catastrophe: The Outbreak of World War I and the Collapse of the Habsburg Empire
Commentary Once again, Hemingway returns to the theme of Lieutenant Henry’s alienation from the Italians in the midst of whom he lives and works, this time by comparing him to other Americans in Milan. According to rumor, Meyers lives in Italy after having been released from jail to die, and the two opera students have changed their American names to Italian ones, although one can’t even pronounce the language properly. Ettore Moretti, the San Franciscan whose connection to Italy is most genuine (his parents live in Torino), is “a legitimate hero who bored everyone he met,” according to Henry.
Dressing station a temporary hospital. grade the degree of rise or descent of a sloping surface. carabinieri (Italian) military police. seventy-sevens shells fired by the Austrians. D. Volunteer Air Detachment. cloistered secluded or confined as in a cloister (a monastery or convent). Critical Commentaries: Chapter VI 27 Chapter VI Summary After three days, the narrator again visits Miss Barkley, whose first name the writer reveals here to be Catherine. They sit in the garden beside the British hospital and talk: She asks him for reassurance that he loves her, which he provides.
Her response: “It’s very hard. ” She laughs. ” As the tragic loss of a loved one has taught her, the war has consequences. The narrator, however, is not yet aware of this fact. Glossary rivederci, a rivederla (Italian) until we meet again; goodbye: implies temporary parting. Plava town on the Isonzo River, in present-day Slovenia. 26 CliffsNotes Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms trench a long, narrow ditch dug by soldiers for cover and concealment, with the removed earth heaped up in front. Protracted trench warfare was characteristic of World War I, especially on the Western Front, in France.
A Mad Catastrophe: The Outbreak of World War I and the Collapse of the Habsburg Empire by Geoffrey Wawro