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Extra info for Advances in Bioethanol
Ideally, the cell density should be kept at a level providing maximum ethanol productivity and yield. Continuous fermentation can be performed in different kinds of bioreactors – stirred tank reactors (single or series) or plug flow reactors. Continuous fermentation often gives higher productivity than batch fermentation, but at low dilution rates which offers the highest productivities. Continuous operation offers ease of control and is less labour intensive than batch operation. However, contamination is more serious in this operation.
Recent studies have clearly proved that there is a direct correlation between the removal of lignin and hemicellulose on cellulose digestibility (Kim and Holtzapple, 2006). Thermochemical processing options appear more promising than biological options for the conversion of lignin fraction of cellulosic biomass, which can have a detrimental effect on enzyme hydrolysis. , 2003). , 2003). Each technology has advantages and disadvantages in terms of costs, yields, material degradation, downstream processing and generation of process wastes.
It has the potential to provide the lowest-cost route for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol with high productivity and desired yields. Direct microbial conversion is a method of converting cellulosic biomass to ethanol in which both ethanol and all of the required enzymes are produced by a single micro-organism. The potential advantage of direct microbial conversion is that a dedicated process step for the production of cellulase enzyme is not necessary. Cellulase enzyme production (or procurement) contributes significantly to the cost involved in the enzymatic Page 36 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2007 3 Advances in Bioethanol Production of bioethanol hydrolysis process.
Advances in Bioethanol by Pira International Ltd