Download e-book for iPad: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 70 by Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.)

By Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.)

ISBN-10: 0120146703

ISBN-13: 9780120146703

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2 K, beam voltage = 26 kV, beam current = 10-100 PA. (c) SEM micrograph of the specimen. (From Bosch, 1986). SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AT VERY LOW TEMPERATURES 39 161,(x,y)Jis shown in Fig. 25(b). Here the signal is used for modulating the brightness on the oscilloscope screen. The dark area indicates large values of the signal 161,(x, y)l. The position of the tunneling window is marked by the dashed lines. The investigation of possible correlations between the appearance of superconducting microshorts and the metallurgical microstructure of the junction electrodes represents an important and challenging task.

5 K. Figure 30 presents the voltage signal obtained under identical conditions as in Fig. 29 plotted against the longitudinal sample coordinate (y-modulation). As we expect, a localized voltage signal 6V(x,y) appears at the two hotspot boundaries. Figures 29 and 30 clearly show how the length of the hotspot changes with increasing and decreasing sample voltage and current. 30. Voltage signal S V ( x ) (in arbitrary units) obtained under identical conditions as in Fig. 29 versus the longitudinal sample coordinate.

Current and voltage leads can easily be attached to the tunnel junction in the cross-line geometry as indicated in Fig. 9. Standard thin-film technology and microfabrication techniques are employed for preparing the junctions. As first predicted by Josephson (1962), Cooper pairs (the particles constituting the superconducting electronic system) can tunnel across the barrier resulting in an electric current flow at zero voltage, if the junction barrier is sufficiently thin. The maximum Josephson current density that can flow across the tunnel junction without electrical resistance is given by the equation Here J1(x,y ) is the local critical current density and #(x,y) the local difference between the phase of the superconducting wave function in both electrodes.

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Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 70 by Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.)


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