Download PDF by Laura Mitchell: An Introduction to Orthodontics

By Laura Mitchell

ISBN-10: 0192631845

ISBN-13: 9780192631848

This publication presents a concise, yet complete, creation to scientific orthodontics. it truly is designed to attract either undergraduate dental scholars and the practicing dentist, and it really is either easy-to-read and entirely illustrated.

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Example text

It has been estimated that there are about 15,000 ­ribosomes in the cytoplasm of an E. coli cell. Cytoplasmic granules occur in certain species of ­bacteria. These may be stained by using a suitable stain, and then identified microscopically. The granules may consist of starch, lipids, sulfur, iron, or other stored substances. Bacterial Cell Wall The rigid exterior cell wall that defines the shape of ­bacterial cells is chemically complex. Thus, the structure of bacterial cell walls is quite different from the relatively simple structure of eukaryotic cell walls, although they serve the same functions—providing rigidity, strength, and protection.

Redrawn from Winn WC Jr, Allen S, Janda W, et al. Koneman’s Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. 6th ed. ) In the microbiology laboAn ocular micromratory, the sizes of cellular mieter is used to crobes are measured using an measure the dimenocular micrometer, a tiny ruler sions of objects within the eyepiece (ocular) being viewed with of the compound light microa compound light microscope. scope (described later). Before it can be used to measure objects, however, the ocular micrometer must first be calibrated, using a measuring device called a stage micrometer.

Actually, a magnifying glass could be considered a simple microscope. Images seen when using a magnifying glass usually appear about 3 to 20 times larger than the object’s actual size. During the late 1600s, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, who was discussed in Chapter 1, used simple microscopes to observe many tiny objects, including bacteria and protozoa (Fig. 2-3). Because of his unique ability to grind glass lenses, scientists believe that Leeuwenhoek’s simple microscopes had a maximum magnifying power of about 3300 (300 times).

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An Introduction to Orthodontics by Laura Mitchell


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